The Fire Restoration Group


Fire Science
Fire Policy Documents
Air Quality Science and Policy
Forests and Climate Science
Fire MOU Partnership
Indigenous Cultural Burning
Letters and Other Media
Additional Bibliography


Caples Creek Ecological Restoration Project --Fire Restoration Group website

2020 Caples Fire First Order Fire Effects Presentation by Scott Dailey, USFS Enterprise Team
2019 Caples Fire First Order Fire Effects--Fire Behavior Assessent Team (FBAT), USFS.
Caples Escape Fire Review - Eldorado National Forest staff
Caples Escaped Prescribed Pile Burn - Facilitated Learning Analysis, Eldorado National Forest staff
Caples Ecological Restoration Rx/Wildfire October 2019 -- Slide presentation, Scot Rogers, Eldorado National Forest

Ishi Fire Restoration Project -- Go to website

Background information and workshop flyer, Feb. 3, 2020
Fire Restoration Group Letter of Support 9-26-2019
Eastern Tehama County foothills fire history map

Sierra National Forest Forestwide Prescribed Fire Project --Go to website

Sierra National Forest Forestwide Prescribed Fire Project -- Updated Purpose, Need, and Proposed Action

Back to the Fire Restoration Group website

Fire Science

Black, A. et al. 2004. Wildland Fire Use: The "Other" Treatment Option. Environmental Consequences Fact Sheet #6, from Fuels Planning: Science Synthesis and Integration. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Research Note RMRS-RN-23-6-WWW.

Black, A., Williamson, M., and Doane, D. 2008. Wildland Fire Use Barriers and Facilitators. Fire Management Today. 68(1):10-14.

Boisramé, Gabrielle, et al. 2017. Managed wildfire effects on forest resilience and water in the Sierra Nevada. Ecosystems 20(4): 717-732.

Calkin, D.E., Thompson, M.P., and M.S. Finney. 2015. Negative consequences of positive feedbacks in US wildfire management. Ecosystems. 2(9): 1-10.

Collins, B. M., Everett, R. G., & Stephens, S. L. 2011. Impacts of fire exclusion and recent managed fire on forest structure in old growth Sierra Nevada mixed-conifer forests. Ecosphere2(4), Article 5, 1-14.

Downing, W.M., Dunn, C.J., Thompson, M.P., Caggiano, M.D., and K.C. Short. 2022. Human ignitions on private lands drive USFS cross-boundary wildfire transmission and community impacts in the western US. Scientific Reports. 12:2624. 

Knapp, E.E., Schwilk, D.W., Kane, J.M., and J.E. Keeley. 2007. Role of burning season on initial understory vegetation response to prescribed fire in a mixed conifer forest. Can. J. For. Res. 37:11-22.

Eric E. Knapp, Becky L. Estes, and Carl N. Skinner. 2009. Ecological Effects of Prescribed
Fire Season: A Literature Review and Synthesis for Managers. 
USDA Forest Service PSW- GTR-224.

North, M., Stine, P., O’Hara, K., Zielinski, W., and Stephens, S.  2009.  An Ecosystem Management Strategy for Sierran Mixed-Conifer Forests.  Gen.  Tech.  Rep.  PWS-GTR-220.  Albany, California: U.  S.  Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station. 

North, Malcolm, ed. 2012. Managing Sierra Nevada Forests. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-237. Albany, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station. 184 p.

North, M., Collins, M., and Stephens, S. 2012. Using fire to increase the scale, benefits, and future maintenance of fuels treatments. J. Forestry 110(7):392–401.

North, M., A. Brough, J. Long, B. Collins, P. Bowden, D. Yasuda, J. Miller, and N. Sugihara. 2015. Constraints on mechanized treatment significantly limit mechanical fuels reduction extent in the Sierra Nevada. J. Forestry 113(1):40-48.

North, M.P., S.L. Stephens, B.M. Collins, J.K. Agee, G. Aplet, J.F. Franklin, and P.Z. Fule. 2015. Reform forest fire management - Agency incentives undermine policy effectiveness. Science 349(6254):1280-81.

North, M., et al. Tamm Review: Reforestation for resilience in dry western U.S. forests. 2019. Forest Ecology and Management 432:209-224.

Pausus, J.G. and J.E. Keeley. 2014. Evolutionary ecology of resprouting and seeding in fire-prone ecosystems. New Phytologist (2014) 204: 55–65.

Schoennagel, T., Balch, J.K., Brenkert-Smith, H., Dennison, P.E., Harvey, B.J., Krawchuk, M.A., Mietkiewicz, N., Morgan, P., Mortiz, M.A., Rasker, R., Turner, M.G., and C. Whitlock. Adapt to more wildfire in western North American forests as climate changes. PNAS. Released for early edition. doi:10.1073/pnas. 16174641114.

Silvas-Bellanca, Karina. 2011. Ecological Burning in the Sierra Nevada: Actions to Achieve Restoration. White Paper produced by Sierra Forest Legacy.

Stephens, S.L. et al. 2014. Temperate and boreal forest mega-fires: characteristics and challenges. Front Ecol Environ 2014; 12(2): 115–122.

Taylor, A.H., Trouet, V., Skinner, C., and S. Stephens. 2016. Socioecological transitions trigger fire regime shifts and modulate fire–climate interactions in the Sierra Nevada, USA, 1600–2015 CE. PNAS. 113(48):13684-13689.

Webster, K. M., & Halpern, C. B. 2010. Long-term vegetation responses to reintroduction and repeated use of fire in mixed-conifer forests of the Sierra Nevada. Ecosphere1(5), Article 9.

Zald, H.S. and C.J. Dunn. 2018. Severe fire weather and intensive forest management increase fire severity in a multi-ownership landscape. Ecological Applications 28(4):1068-1080.

Fire Policy

Also see Letters, below.

Stephens, S. and Ruth, L. 2005. Federal Forest-Fire Policy in the United States. Ecological Applications 15(2):532-542.

USDI, USDA, DOE, DOD, EPA, NOAA, et al. 2001. Review and Update of the 1995 Federal Wildland Fire Management Policy. National Interagency Fire Center, Boise, ID.

USDI, USDA, National Association of State Foresters, et al. 2008. Quadrennial Fire Review. National Interagency Fire Center, Boise, ID.

USDA and USDI. 2009. Guidance for Implementation of Federal Wildland Fire Management Policy.

USDA and USDI. 2014. The National Strategy: The Final Phase Cohesive Wildland Fire Management Strategy (The National Strategy).

Air Quality Science and Policy

Cisneros, R., Schweizer, D., Preisler, H., Bennett, D.H., Shaw, G., Bytnerowicz, A. 2014. Spatial and seasonal patterns of particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, California. Atmospheric Pollution Research 5 (2014) 581-590. 

Engel, K.H. 2013. Perverse incentives: the case of wildfire smoke regulation. Ecology Law Currents. 40(623):623-671.

Long, J.W., Tarnay, L.W., and M.P.North. 2017, in press. Aligning Smoke Management with Ecological and Public Health Goals. J. Forestry 115:000-000. Published online January 19, 2017.

Schweizer, D. and R. Cisneros. 2014. Wildland fire management and air quality in the Southern Sierra Nevada: Using the Lion Fire as a case study with a multi-year perspective on PM 2.5 impacts and fire policy. J. of Environ. Mgmt. 144:265-278. 

Schweizer, D.W., and R. Cisneros. 2017. Forest fire policy: Change conventional thinking of smoke management to prioritize long-term air quality and public health. Air Quality and Atmospheric Health. 10(1):33-36.  

Schweizer, D. et al. 2017. Using National Ambient Air Quality Standards for fine particulate matter to assess regional wildland fire smoke and air quallity management. J. Env. Mgmt. 201 (2017) 345-356.

Forests and Climate Science

California Forest Carbon Plan 2018

Harmon, M, W. Ferrell, and J.F. Franklin. 1990. Effects on carbon storage of conversion of old-growth forests to young forests. Science, 247, 699–702.

Hurteau, M.D., A. L. Westerling, C. Wiedinmyer, and B.P. Bryant. 2014. Projected effects of climate and development on California wildfire emissions through 2100. Environ. Sci. Technol. 48:(2298-2304).

Meyer, M.D. 2015. Resource objective wildfires benefit resource. Research Brief for Research Managers, California Fire Science Consortium. 

Luyssaert, S. et al. 2008. Old-growth forests as global carbon sinks. Nature 455:213-215 doi:10.1038/nature07276.

Meyer, M.D. 2015. Resource objective wildfires benefit resource. Research Brief for Research Managers, California Fire Science Consortium

North, M., Collins, M., and Stephens, S. 2012. Using fire to increase the scale, benefits, and future maintenance of fuels treatments. J. Forestry 110(7):392–401.

Stephens, S.L., R.E. Martin, and N.E. Clinton. 2007. Prehistoric Fire Area and Emissions from California’s Forests, Woodlands, Shrublands, and Grasslands. Forest Ecology and Management 251(3):205-216.

Thompson, I., Mackey, B., McNulty, S., Mosseler, A. 2009. Forest Resilience, Biodiversity, and Climate Change. A synthesis of the biodiversity/resilience/stability relationship in forest ecosystems. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Montreal. Technical Series no. 43, 67 pages.

van Mantgem, P. J. et al. 2009.  Widespread increase of tree mortality rates in the Western United States.  Science 23 January 2009: Vol. 323. no. 5913, pp. 521 - 524 DOI: 10.1126/science.1165000.

Westerling, A. L. et al. 2006.  Warming and earlier spring increase Western U.S. forest wildfire activity. Science. 313:940, DOI: 10.1126/science.1128834.


Bowman, D.M.J.S, Perry, G.L.W., Higgins, S.I., Johnson, C.N., Fuhlendorf, S.D., and B.P. Murphy. 2016. Pyrodiversity is the coupling of biodiversity and fire regimes in food webs. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B. 371:20150169.

Koontz, M.J., North, M.P., Werner, C.M., Fick, S.E., and A.M. Latimer. 2020. Local forest structure variability increases resilience to wildfire in dry western U.S. coniferous forests. Ecology Letters doi: 10.1111/ele.13447.

Martin, R.E., and D.B. Sapsis. 1991. Fires and Agents of Biodiversity: Pyrodiversity Promotes Biodiversity. Proceedings of the Symposium on Biodiversity of Northwestern California, October 28-30, 1991, Santa Rosa, California 

Pyrodiversity in Sierra Nevada Mixed Conifer Forest. Jamie  Lydersen, California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection, Fire and Resource Assessment ProgramPresentation,  April 4, 2019 Fire MOU Partnership meeting.  

Thomas, Craig. 2020. Pyrosilviculture: Building a Partnership and Practice for Advancing Fire Management and Forestry in California. Presentation to the California Forestry Association in February 2020.

Tingley, M.W., Ruiz-Gutiérrez, V., Wilkerson, R.L., Howell, C.A., and R.B. Siegel. 2016. Pyrodiversity promotes avian diversity over the decade following forest fire. Proc. R. Soc. B. 283: 20161703.

Webster, K.M. and .B. Halpern. 2010. Long-term vegetation responses to reintroduction and repeated use of fire in mixed-conifer forests of the Sierra Nevada. Ecosphere. 1(5):1-27.

Fire MOU Partnership

Fire MOU Partnership 2021-2025 Final July 19, 2021

Appendix A-Fire MOU Partnership Primary Cooperator Contact List--2021

Fire MOU Partnership Members Poster (2 pages)

Fire MOU Partnership Slide Presentation, May 2017

Archive: Original Fire MOU Partnership Signed October, 2015

Indigenous Cultural Burning

Clark, S.A., Miller, A., and D. Hankins (for the Karuk Tribe). 2021. Good Fire -- Current Barriers to the Expansion of Cultural Burning and Prescribed Fire in California and Recommended Solutions.

Letters and Other Media

August 10, 2021: Letter from scientists to Randy Moore, Forest Service Chief regarding fire managed for resource objectives and prescribed fire.

August 10, 2021: Letter from wildland fire management professionals to Randy Moore, Forest Service Chief regarding new policy on fire managed for resource objectives and prescribed fire.

August 2, 2021: Letter from Chief of the Forest Service Randy Moore to agency department heads, describing Chief's wildland fire policy ending wildland fire use for resource benefit, and prescribed fire.

June 2020: Fire Primer for Journalists. Steve Pyne.

2020, April 27, coalition group letter to the Forest Service Region 5 regarding the 2020 pandemic-related ban on prescribed burning across all agency units in California.

2016 group scientists' letter re: The fire challenge: Increasing fire use for natural resource benefits, carbon stability and protection of public health. Jan. 22, 2016. Sent to USDA, US EPA, USDI, and CEQ.

Additional Bibliography

Agee, J.K. 1993. Fire Ecology of Pacific Northwest Forests. Island Press. 493 pp.

Anderson, M. K. 2005. Tending the Wild: Native American Knowledge and the Management of California's Natural Resources. University of California Press. 526 pp.

Biswell, H. 1989. Prescribed Burning in California Wildlands Vegetation Management. University of California Press. 255 pp.

Blackburn, T.C. and K. Andersen. 1993. Before the Wilderness: Environmental Management by Native Californians. Ballena Press. 476 pp.

Lindenmayer, D.B. and J.F. Franklin. 2002. Conserving Forest Biodiversity: A Comprehensive Multiscaled Approach. Island Press. 351 pp.

Lindenmayer, D.B., Burton, P.J., and J.F. Franklin. 2008. Salvage Logging and Its Ecological Consequences. Island Press. 227 pp.

Mount, J.R. 2010. Torching Conventional Forestry: The Artful Application of Science. Auberry Press. 278 pp.

Sugihara, N.G, Van Wagtendonk, J. W., Shaffner, K.E., Kaufman, J.F., and A. Thode. 2006. Fire in California's Ecosystems. University of California Press. 596 pp.

Wuerthner, G. 2006. Wildfire: A Century of Failed Forest Policy. Island Press. 322 pp.

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